Why does activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation occur in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome?

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by infection with SFTS virus and this mortality rate is 16.2% to 30%. An 85-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department of the hospital with primary complaints of fever and consciousness disturbance. Haemophagocytic syndrome and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) without associated prolonged prothrombin time were observed, suggesting SFTS, which was eventually diagnosed. APTT-only prolongation has been reported previously with SFTS, but the mechanism is unknown. The absence of coagulation factors was determined by a cross-mixing study. In addition, examination of intrinsic coagulation factors showed reduced factor XI activity. These results suggest that factor XI is causally related to APTT-only prolongation in SFTS.

as reported in: BMJ Case Rep. 2020 Oct 8; 13(10):