Urgent distal pancreatectomy for intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to the spontaneous rupture of a pancreatic metastatic tumor from synovial sarcoma: a case report.
Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue malignancy that frequently affects the extremities, adjacent to the large joints. Synovial sarcoma has a high rate of distant metastasis; however, pancreatic metastasis is extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there has been no report of bleeding due to spontaneous tumor rupture. This study reports the case of a patient with synovial sarcoma pancreatic metastasis causing tumor rupture and bleeding, which was successfully managed with emergent distal pancreatectomy. A 27-year-old woman underwent extensive resection of the primary tumor and partial lung resection after chemotherapy for left femoral synovial sarcoma and multiple lung metastases 4 years prior. During the follow-up, a 35-mm tumor was noted in the pancreatic tail on abdominal computed tomography (CT), and no other distant metastases were detected via positron emission tomography CT. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was scheduled for pancreatic metastasis of synovial sarcoma. However, before the scheduled pancreatectomy could be conducted, the patient visited the emergency department because of abdominal pain that occurred after consuming a small amount of alcohol, and CT showed ascites with high CT values and leakage of contrast media. She was diagnosed with intra-abdominal hemorrhage due to a ruptured metastatic pancreatic tumor, and an emergency operation was performed. In total, 1500 mL of blood was evacuated from the abdomen, and the bleeding pancreatic tail tumor was resected. Histopathological findings revealed synovial sarcoma metastasis and a ruptured tumor capsule, and tumor cells were observed in the hematoma. After discharge on postoperative day 18, the patient was carefully monitored and confirmed to be in relapse-free survival, without chemotherapy, at 6 months post-surgery. While the rate of tumor growth varies depending on the grade of the tumor, the possibility of rupture should be considered even in metastatic pancreatic tumors. In the case of pancreatic tumor rupture with stable circulation, radiological evaluation for oncology is necessary, and primary resection may be compatible with resectable cases.