The Typical Triad of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in a 62-Year-Old Male.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a rare pathological condition of the brain in which the ventricles are enlarged due to cerebrospinal fluid accumulation and is associated with normal opening pressure on lumbar puncture with a large-volume cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap. This results in three classical symptoms: mental impairment, gait disturbance, and urinary or fecal incontinence. We present a case of idiopathic NPH in which a 64-year-old retired man with diabetes was brought to the emergency department after recurrent previous falls. The patient complained of an unsteady gait and presented with the typical triad of NPH which is mental impairment, gait disturbance, and incontinence. The patient was a known diabetic, and his gait was characterized by shuffling, bradykinesia, and mild drifting toward the right side. A head computed tomography scan revealed brain tissue volume loss, with disproportionate dilation of the lateral and third ventricles. A lumbar puncture with a large-volume CSF tapping produced normal opening pressure (18 mmHg); thus, the diagnosis of NPH was made. The patient underwent shunt surgery, and his balance and memory improved significantly after the procedure. Also, no event of fecal incontinence occurred. NPH resembles several neurodegenerative disorders. Due to this, it can be difficult to diagnose. Emergency physicians, as frontline healthcare providers, may encounter such cases.NPH should be considered in patients presenting with an unsteady gait, memory impairment, and urinary or fecal incontinence by taking a detailed history and conducting a physical examination to prevent future complications.