Synergistic effect of hypoalbuminaemia and hypotension in predicting in-hospital mortality and intensive care admission: a retrospective cohort study

OBJECTIVE Hypoalbuminaemia is an important prognostic factor. It may be associated with poor nutritional states, chronic heart and kidney disease, long-standing infection and cancer. Hypotension is a hallmark of circulatory failure. We evaluated hypoalbuminaemia and hypotension synergism as predictor of in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission.
DESIGN We retrospectively analysed emergency department (ED) visits from January 2011 to December 2019.
SETTING Data were retrieved from five Mount Sinai health system hospitals, New York.
PARTICIPANTS We included consecutive ED patients ≥18 years with albumin measurements.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES Clinical outcomes were in-hospital mortality and ICU admission. The rates of these outcomes were stratified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) (<90 vs ≥90 mm Hg) and albumin levels. Variables included demographics, presenting vital signs, comorbidities (measured as ICD codes) and other common blood tests. Multivariable logistic regression models analysed the adjusted OR of different levels of albumin and SBP for predicting ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. The models were adjusted for demographics, vital signs, comorbidities and common laboratory results. Patients with albumin 3.5-4.5 g/dL and SBP ≥90 mm Hg were used as reference.
RESULTS The cohort included 402 123 ED arrivals (27.9% of total adult ED visits). The rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission and overall admission were 1.7%, 8.4% and 47.1%, respectively. For SBP<90 mm Hg and albumin<2.5 g/dL, mortality and ICU admission rates were 34.0% and 40.6%, respectively; for SBP<90 mm Hg and albumin ≥2.5 g/dL 8.2% and 24.1%, respectively; for SBP ≥90 mm Hg and albumin<2.5 g/dL 11.4% and 18.6%, respectively; for SBP ≥90 mm Hg and albumin 3.5-4.5 g/dL 0.5% and 6.4%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that in patients with hypotension and albumin<2.5 g/dL the adjusted OR for in-hospital mortality was 37.1 (95% CI 32.3 to 42.6), and for ICU admission was 5.4 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.1).
CONCLUSION Co-occurrence of hypotension and hypoalbuminaemia is associated with poor hospital outcomes.

as reported in: BMJ Open. 2021 10 27; 11(10): e050216