Serum cardiac troponins as prognostic markers in patients with traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE The association between brain injury and elevated serum cardiac troponin (cTn) remains poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether elevated cTn increases the risk of mortality in patients with traumatic (TBI) or non-traumatic brain injury (NT-BI).
METHODS Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Google scholar databases, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for a retrospective, prospective and randomized clinical trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT studies that assessed the effect of elevated cTn (conventional or high sensitive assay) on the outcomes of brain injury patients. The main outcome of interest was mortality. Two authors independently abstracted the data using a data collection form. Results from different studies were pooled for analysis, whenever appropriate. The total number of patients pooled was 2435, of which 916 had elevated cTn and 1519 were in control group.
RESULTS Out of 691 references identified through the search, 8 analytical studies met inclusion criteria. Among both types of brain injuries, an elevated cTn was associated with a higher mortality with an overall pooled odd ratio (OR) of 3.37 (95% CI 2.13-5.36). The pooled OR for mortality was 3.31 (95% CI 1.99-5.53) among patients with TBI and 3.36 (95% CI 1.32-8.6) among patients with NT-BI.
CONCLUSIONS Pooled analysis indicates that elevated cTn is significantly associated with a high mortality in patients with TBI and NT-BI. Prospective clinical trials are needed to support these findings and to inform a biomarker risk stratification regardless of the mechanism of injury.