Jugular vein diameter: A new player in normotensive pulmonary embolism
PURPOSE The majority of the patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) are those with normotensive PE. Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and myocardial injury markers are associated with mortality although they have a low predictive impact. Here, we aim to study the performance characteristics of jugular vein diameter to predict 30-day mortality.
MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective, observational cohort study, we included normotensive patients who were diagnosed with PE using computed tomography angiography or scintigraphy in the emergency service. The demographic characteristics, blood pressures, pulses, shock indexes, troponin and lactate levels, echocardiography findings, and internal jugular vein diameters (IJV) of the patients were recorded. Testing characteristics of IJV in predicting 30-day mortality were studied.
RESULTS The mean age of the 81 patients was 66.8±16.9 years and 37% of them were male. Age, shock index, lactate, RVD, PESI, and IJV diameters during inspiration and expiration were indicators for 30-day mortality. The cut-off value obtained using the ROC curve for mortality was an IJV-exp-AP of ≤8.9 mm (sensitivity,73.3%; specificity,92.4%; +LR,9.68; -LR,0.29; NPD,93.8%; PPD,68.7%; area under the curve, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.84; p=0.004).
CONCLUSION IJV diameter is an indicator of 30-day mortality. It can be used to detect low-risk patients.