Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Advances in Emergency Care
Intracerebral hemorrhage is a stroke subtype with high mortality and poor functional outcome in survivors. Its main causes are hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulant treatment. Hematomas have a high frequency of expansion in the first hours after symptom onset, a process associated with neurologic deterioration and poor outcome. Control of severe hypertension, reversal of anticoagulant effect, and management of increased intracranial pressure are the mainstays of management of intracerebral hemorrhage in the acute phase. Surgical evacuation of the hematoma by conventional craniotomy does not improve outcomes, but minimally invasive techniques may be a valuable approach that deserves further evaluation.