Internal Jugular and Subclavian Vein Thrombosis in a Post-liver Transplant Patient.
Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is an unusual case of vascular disease of the upper limb veins, that could result in multiple complications if left untreated. IJVT can be subdivided into primary and secondary. Primary IJVT is when the thrombosis happens to someone without known risk factors, while secondary IJVT is when it happens to a person with previous risk factors. Our patient is a 66-year-old male with a history of hypertension and is status post-liver transplant in 2014 due to end-stage liver disease; he presented to the emergency department of the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center complaining of progressive right chest, flank, and back pain for the past month. On physical examination, the patient had right upper limb, chest, and neck increase in vascular markings and right supraclavicular swelling with no erythema. Upper extremity and neck ultrasound showed positive deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the right internal jugular vein, right subclavian vein, and axillary vein. A chest X-ray showed right-sided pleural effusion with no mediastinal shift. Computer tomography (CT) demonstrated thrombosed right internal jugular and subclavian veins. General internal medicine service was consulted and they started the patient on Emxparine 1 mg/kg twice daily. The patient improved and is doing fine. He is scheduled for repeated outpatient follow-ups.