The impact of adherence to a guideline for minimizing opioid use for treatment of pain in an urban emergency department
INTRODUCTION The opioid epidemic has significantly evolved over the last three decades. The initiation and continuation of prescription opioids for pain control were one of the primary contributors, across different medical settings. The emergency department (ED) is typically the first place patients go to for management of acute pain, and often where opioid naïve patients first become exposed to opioids. In 2018, the ED of University Hospital located in Newark, NJ implemented a pain guideline to ensure that patients are not unnecessarily exposed to opioids. The goal of our study was to determine whether provider adherence was successful in reducing opioid administration.
METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of pharmacy records of patients treated for pain in the ED within the time frame January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2019. We analyzed the change in our practice by comparing the amount of opioid and non-opioid medications administered and the number of patients administered each type, as well as the change in our utilization of specific medications. The t-test or the χ 2 test were used as applicable.
RESULTS There were decreases in the mean number of opioid doses administered in 2017 (1273) compared to 2019 (498; p = 0.027). There was an increase in non-opioid analgesics administered, (mean 2017: 1817, mean 2019: 2432.5, p = 0.018). There was also an increase in the proportion of patients given non-opioid analgesics (mean 2017: 22%, mean 2019: 28%, p<0.0001). There were increases in administrations of acetaminophen (40% to 52%) and ibuprofen (30% to 35.1%), and decreases in administrations of hydromorphone (2.5% to 0.03%), morphine (11.5% to 5.6%), oxycodone (10.6% to 5.3%), and tramadol (5.7% to 1.9%) (all p<0.0001).
DISCUSSION A guideline that emphasizes the use of non-opioid analgesics first line treatment for acute pain can be effective for reducing opioid administration in the ED. Through the use of our guideline, we reduced the number of patients who have received opioid analgesics and, at the same time, increased non-opioid analgesic administration. Future studies should explore readmission rates, duration of pain relief in patients managed with non-opioid versus opioid analgesics, and perception of relief through the use of satisfaction scores.