Delayed diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm in pediatrics: the risk of misdiagnosis-a case report

BACKGROUND Aneurysms in the pediatric population are uncommon, requiring a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We report a case of a child with head trauma and delayed diagnosed cerebral aneurysm.
METHODS A 2-year-old girl was brought to the emergency room with seizures. Head imaging showed acute intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and paraclinoid aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery. She had been hospitalized elsewhere 1 month prior for traumatic brain injury after falling to the ground with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage and good recovery, but without diagnosis of aneurysm.
RESULTS The child was treated with aneurysm embolization and ventriculoperitoneal shunt, being discharged asymptomatic.
CONCLUSION Most primary intraventricular hemorrhage in pediatric population has identifiable etiology. A high rate of clinical suspicion, associated with a low threshold for vascular neuroimaging studies for children with spontaneous or atypical intracranial hemorrhage allow accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and improved outcome.

as reported in: Childs Nerv Syst. 2021 Jan 3 [Epub ahead of print]